kelsoo's beginners guide

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kelsoo's beginners guide

Postby kelsoo » July 9th, 2011, 1:38 am

Discussion is Here

NOTE:
i am using this place to post kelsoos beginners guide.
In the how-to section i can't make several posts, that's why i "host" it here (for now, someone needs to move it to a proper location, in case it is necessary. Once that is done this Note can be removed)
END NOTE.

kelsoo did the biggest part, hazel helped a lot and nadir a bit.
https://docs.google.com/View?id=ddq4dz3q_24cxjdstg2

Table of contents
1) Intro:
A beginners guide to Debian

2) Finding information:
2.1) basic built-in commands and documentation
2.2) terminology
2.3) external web-sites
2.4) the Debian-wiki
2.5) the Debian mailing-lists
2.6) Debian related forums
2.7) how to search
2.8 ) IRC

3) The Debian Project:
Some background info.

4) Getting started:
4.1) Preliminaries
4.2) Debian live-cd`s
4.3) Debian installation media
4.4) Installing Debian

5) Running Debian:
5.1) The command line
5.2) Installing software
5.3) The graphical display
5.4) The basic system file structure
5.5) The concept of Root and user

6) Desktop environments, available repackaged on CD:
6.0) Desktop environments
6.1) Gnome
6.2) KDE
6.3) XFCE
6.4) LXDE
6.5) Building your own system with a net install:

7)Window Mangers:
Window Managers

B) Additional information:
B1) Learning more: common tasks:
B1.1) SU and SUDO
B1.2) File Permissions

B2) Desktop environments: (TBC)
B2.1) Building your own desktop
B2.2) Window Managers

B3) The command line:
B3.1) terminal emulators
B3.2) editors

B4) Commands:
B4.1) processing the contents of files
B4.2) file and folder commands
B4.3) miscellaneous useful commands

B 5) Graphical user interface (GUI):
B5.1) GTK + QT
Last edited by nadir on July 11th, 2011, 7:40 am, edited 7 times in total.
"It's warm in the crowd, but it stinks" -- Miroslav Krleža
kelsoo
 
Posts: 65
Joined: February 13th, 2011, 1:21 pm
Location: Scotland

A Beginners guide to Debian

Postby kelsoo » July 9th, 2011, 1:39 am

1) A Beginners guide to Debian:

Intro

This is an effort to give a basic overview of the Debian system, frequently asked questions, and how people new to Debian can help themselves as much as possible.

I will explain what is expected of new users in terms of forum etiquette and effort. People here are friendly and helpful, but due to the very nature of Debian you are expected to put effort into solving any problems you encounter. This will help get you underway toward becoming a good community member and able to help others!

If after studying and trying a few things you do get stuck, or you're worried you may do damage or lose data, please post in the forum. No one here would want you to wipe out your wedding photos for fear of asking.

I will try to make this guide as sequential as possible, so new users get a basic grasp of things, in order, in a few sentences, and with more detailed answers in the links. Basically, “bite sized chunks” linking to FAQ or good how-to's that already exist. Some small how-to's will be incorporated. I shall refer to the Debian “stable branch" mostly.

Be aware that some information gets old very quickly while some can stay the same for years. Be as sure as you can it's still up to date before applying.

Something to be aware of: Debian is a core or source distribution. This means there are many Debian-based distributions. THEY ARE NOT DEBIAN. Their information may or may not be useful or safely applied to Debian. Debian has no way of knowing what has been changed on these systems. Do not add their repositories or install their programs. You will break your system eventually.

Distributions built from Debian? There are too many to list!

Distrowatch (http://distrowatch.com/) wrote:"The success of Debian GNU/Linux can be illustrated by the following numbers. It is developed by over 1,000 volunteer developers, its software repositories contain more than 20,000 packages (compiled for 11 processor architectures), and it is responsible for inspiring over 120 Debian-based distributions and live CDs. These figures are unmatched by any other Linux-based operating system. The actual development of Debian takes place in three main branches (or four if one includes the bleeding-edge "experimental" branch) of increasing levels of stability: "unstable" (also known as "sid"), "testing" and "stable". This progressive integration and stabilisation of packages and features, together with the project's well-established quality control mechanisms, has earned Debian its reputation of being one of the best-tested and most bug-free distributions available today."

table of content
Last edited by nadir on July 9th, 2011, 2:07 am, edited 1 time in total.
"It's warm in the crowd, but it stinks" -- Miroslav Krleža
kelsoo
 
Posts: 65
Joined: February 13th, 2011, 1:21 pm
Location: Scotland

Finding information

Postby kelsoo » July 9th, 2011, 1:40 am

2) Finding information:

2.1) Basic built-in commands and documentation: Built in to the system and available via a console, terminal window or help menu:

If all is going well you have a nice graphical desktop with all the familiar controls and menus available. If for any reason that is not the case and you're seeing only the white text on a black screen of a default console, it's essential you know how to navigate the user interface:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_co ... -interface) quote ref:


Usually in Linux, the first six virtual consoles provide a text terminal with a login prompt to a Unix shell. The graphical X Window System starts in the seventh virtual console. In Linux, the switching is performed with a key combination of Alt plus a function key – for example Alt+F1 to access the virtual console number 1. Alt+Left arrow changes to the previous virtual console and Alt+Right arrow to the next virtual console. To switch from the X Window System, Ctrl+Alt+function key works. (Note that users can redefine these default key combinations.)

Some further information can be found in section B3 and B4: different terminal-emulators are explained in B3.1; followed by the command-line editors in B3.2 The basic commands for the command line are introduced in section B4.

If you have the graphical X Window System up and running and need to do something at the command line, you will normally just start your favourite or desktop default "terminal window" program. Xterm is always there. The general term "terminal" can refer to either.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux_Virtual_Consoles
http://www.bellevuelinux.org/console.html
http://www.bellevuelinux.org/terminal_window.html

man pages:
Every time you install an application it installs its user manual on your machine. These are called “man pages” for short. The quality and style depends on the author. It may be new-user friendly, very technical, very short, or just poor. Some are excellent. To access the man page you open a terminal window and type the man command and the name of the program or command you're interested in, for example:
Code: Select allman mplayer
This will open the mplayer man page. You can use up/down and page up/page down keys to navigate through the document. Typing the letter 'q' will quit the man page browser and return you to the prompt.

You will also find the man pages online in many places. Try “man mplayer” in your favorite search engine.

--help: Many commands have a help file. It uses the normal standard of command name followed by a space followed by --help or -h with some programs. To view the copy command help e.g.
cp --help
move
mv --help
listq
ls --help
If a help page is very large you can use the pipe "|"command (The pipe command uses the output of one command as the input of the next command) This together with the "less" command (The less command displays output one screen size at a time) You can use up/down and page up/page down keys to navigate through the document. Typing the letter 'q' will quit and return you to the prompt.
cp --help | less
mv --help | less
ls --help | less

whatis: The "whatis" command will give you a very short description of any installed application. e.g. whatis (space) name_of_application.

$ whatis xterm
xterm (1) - terminal emulator for X
$ whatis iceweasel
iceweasel (1) - a Web browser for X11 derived from the Mozilla browser
$ whatis man
man (7) - macros to format man pages
man (1) - an interface to the on-line reference manuals
$ whatis whatis
whatis (1) - display manual page descriptions

Docs:
More documentation is found in /usr/share/doc. Open your favorite file browser and navigate to that directory. Most installed applications will have a subdirectory of the same name that contains various text or archive files that you can click on to see more information. The package maintainers will often include a read me file that describes what they did to configure the package for the Debian system. This information tends to the technical, but often gives some useful clues.

Most GUI (graphical) applications access files here via their help menus.

table of content
Last edited by nadir on July 9th, 2011, 2:09 am, edited 2 times in total.
"It's warm in the crowd, but it stinks" -- Miroslav Krleža
kelsoo
 
Posts: 65
Joined: February 13th, 2011, 1:21 pm
Location: Scotland

Terminology

Postby kelsoo » July 9th, 2011, 1:41 am

2.2) Terminology:

You will likely come across some strange terminology. Many a new users has asked why the foo and bar commands failed!
http://kb.iu.edu/data/aetq.html

Abbreviations: gui = graphical user interface,
cli = command line interface,
irc = internet relay chat ,
De = Desktop environment,
Wm = Window manager,
rms = Richard M Stallman,
Toc = Table of contents,
fsf = Free Software Foundation,
foss and floss = free (libre) open source software,
DFSG = Debian Free Software Guidelines,
OS = Operating system.

table of content
Last edited by nadir on July 9th, 2011, 2:09 am, edited 1 time in total.
"It's warm in the crowd, but it stinks" -- Miroslav Krleža
kelsoo
 
Posts: 65
Joined: February 13th, 2011, 1:21 pm
Location: Scotland


Debian Wiki

Postby kelsoo » July 9th, 2011, 1:42 am

2.4) The Debian-wiki:
Debian has a wiki, very similar to Wikipedia. This information can be edited by anyone that's registered.
There is lots and lots of information there.
http://wiki.debian.org/

table of content
Last edited by nadir on July 9th, 2011, 2:11 am, edited 1 time in total.
"It's warm in the crowd, but it stinks" -- Miroslav Krleža
kelsoo
 
Posts: 65
Joined: February 13th, 2011, 1:21 pm
Location: Scotland

Mailing Lists

Postby kelsoo » July 9th, 2011, 1:43 am

2.5) The Debian mailing-lists:

Debian lists are archives of email correspondence. They contain may Q&A's. You can search the different archives and subscribe to the lists that interest you. Once you've subscribed you can post questions and receive updates via email and rss feeds.
http://www.debian.org/MailingLists/
http://lists.debian.org/
Last edited by nadir on July 9th, 2011, 2:32 am, edited 1 time in total.
"It's warm in the crowd, but it stinks" -- Miroslav Krleža
kelsoo
 
Posts: 65
Joined: February 13th, 2011, 1:21 pm
Location: Scotland

Debian related forums

Postby kelsoo » July 9th, 2011, 1:43 am

Last edited by nadir on July 9th, 2011, 2:33 am, edited 1 time in total.
"It's warm in the crowd, but it stinks" -- Miroslav Krleža
kelsoo
 
Posts: 65
Joined: February 13th, 2011, 1:21 pm
Location: Scotland

How to search

Postby kelsoo » July 9th, 2011, 1:44 am

2.7) How to search:

Obvious places:
Beginners Questions
forums.debian.net-faq
Docs, Howtos, Tips & Tricks

The built-in search could be better. You can use the Google site search facility to get better results. Paste these examples into a Google search to see how they work.

wifi lenny solved site:forums.debian.net
printing site:tldp.org

Note that site:domain restricts the search to just the site you want to look at.

ppc OR imac OR ibook AND Bro.Tiag AND oswaldkelso site:forums.debian.net

This one made me laugh, but offers very good advice on searching via subject and user name using the AND and OR options.

Use quotes to group words; "wifi lenny" is not the same as wifi lenny. Google will look for the phrase exactly as quoted, rather than the individual words anywhere in the document. Remember quotation marks can help and hinder your search. Be smart. You can refine your search even more by adding a users name to narrow down your search. You can also help your self and others by asking clear questions and posting with titles that contain information that can be logically found. "Blank screen on imac PPC" is much better than "blank screen" or "broken mac" If you ask for help and get a fix, mark it "solved" works wonders.

table of content
Last edited by nadir on July 9th, 2011, 2:11 am, edited 1 time in total.
"It's warm in the crowd, but it stinks" -- Miroslav Krleža
kelsoo
 
Posts: 65
Joined: February 13th, 2011, 1:21 pm
Location: Scotland

IRC

Postby kelsoo » July 9th, 2011, 1:45 am

2.8 ) IRC:(internet relay chat):

Quote: ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Relay_Chat

"Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a form of real-time Internet text messaging (chat) or synchronous conferencing. It is mainly designed for group communication in discussion forums, called channels, but also allows one-to-one communication via private message as well as chat and data transfers"

1. install an irc application. There are lots: barnowl-ircii-sirc-tinyirc-barnowl-iceape-chatzilla-ii-irssi-konversation-pidgin-scrollz-sic-talksoup-weechat-xchat

A very easy to use but light GUI one is lostirc. Here's how to get it set up

As root install it with
# apt-get install lostirc

Start it from a menu, or a run dialog or terminal by typing its name.

2. Add the server
Under "hostname" Thats the Server put: irc.oftc.net
Under "port" put: 6667
Under "password" leave that blank until you've registered your "nick"
Under "nickname" your-desired-nick

3. Join the channel : #debian-forums

4. Register Your Nick
In order to register your nick (nickname) for use on debian-forums irc channel you must notify the NicServ. You do this by typing

/msg nickserv REGISTER your-password your-email

NOTICE NickServ: Nickname "your-desired-nick" has been registered successfully and is now yours to use.

Now go and add your password to the "password" section and you can also tick the "connect automatically" box. And automatically join the forum chat by placing

/join #debian-forums

In the "commands to perform when connected" section.

http://lostirc.sourceforge.net/index.php?page=about
http://www.ircbeginner.com/ircinfo/ircc-commands.html
http://wiki.debian.org/GettingHelpOnIrc
http://www.irchelp.org/irchelp/irctutor ... quickstart

table of content
Last edited by nadir on July 9th, 2011, 2:12 am, edited 1 time in total.
"It's warm in the crowd, but it stinks" -- Miroslav Krleža
kelsoo
 
Posts: 65
Joined: February 13th, 2011, 1:21 pm
Location: Scotland

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